By Vít Bubeník
This monograph goals to shut the space in our wisdom of the character and speed of grammatical swap throughout the formative interval of todays Indo-Aryan languages. throughout the 6th-12th c. the slow erosion of the artificial morphology of previous Indo-Aryan resulted eventually within the remodelling of its syntax towards the hot Indo-Aryan analytic type.
This learn concentrates at the emergence and improvement of the ergative building when it comes to the passive-to-ergative reanalysis and the co-existence of the ergative development with the outdated and new analytic passive structures. particular realization is paid to the actuation challenge noticeable because the tug of conflict among conservative and eliminative forces in the course of their improvement. different chapters care for the evolution of grammatical and lexical point, causativization, modality, absolute structures and subordination.
This learn relies on a wealth of recent info gleaned from unique poetic works in Apabhraṃśa (by Svayaṃbhādeva, Puṣpadanta, Haribhadra, Somaprabha et al.). It includes sections facing descriptive suggestions of Medieval Indian grammarians (esp. Hemacandra). the entire Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa examples are always parsed and translated.
The opus is forged within the theoretical framework of sensible Grammar of the Prague and Amsterdam colleges. it may be of specific curiosity to students and scholars of Indo-Aryan and common ancient linguistics, particularly these drawn to the problems of morphosyntactic switch and typology of their sociohistorical environment.
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Additional info for A Historical Syntax of Late Middle Indo-Aryan (Apabhraṃśa)
Until 1030 Mahmud's army invaded Northern India on almost annual basis. The remaining historical events of the 12th c. are fairly well known. The second large scale-attack by the Turks, Afghans and Persians took place under the leadership of Muhammad Ghuri at the end of the 12th c. His invading force entered the Indus plain through the more southerly Gomal pass, and a series of annual campaigns followed: in 1185 Muhammad conquered Lahore, annexed Multan and Sind, and in 1192 defeated the last Indo-Aryan king of Delhi, Prthviraja.
A few words are in order a propos the origin and the development of meaning of this term, and its regional and ethnic sources. Among ancient Indian grammarians and rhetoricians the term Apabhramsa was used contemptu ously to denote all deviations from Paninian Sanskrit, descended from the divine language of the Vedic texts. For instance, Pataňjali (2nd c. 1] labels all the dialectal forms of Sanskrit go "cow" (gāvī, gon\ gotā, gopotdlikd) as apabhramsah "aberrant, off standard". The famous treatise of dramaturgy, Bharatiya Nātyasāstra, whose present text available in the 2nd c.
Sanskrit by Prakrit, and Prakrit by Apabhramsa) but moved up vertically into the position of the 'high'/'prestigious'/'dignified' variety to be imitated by the 'low' one. From the point of view of modern theories of the acquisition of language, the 'high' varieties are transmitted in a non-genetic 'interrupted' fashion, indicated by the dotted line. 1 Classical Sanskrit During the late MIA period Classical Sanskrit used in contemporary artistic literature (kavya) had long ceased to be a 'living' language in the sense of 'ordinary' genetic transmission.